5 December 1996 by decision of UNESCO World Heritage Committee at its XX session, held in the Mexican city of Merida, LakeBaikal has been included as a natural site in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Committee's decision stated: "LakeBaikal - a classic case of the World Heritage Site that meets all four natural criteria. The lake is located in the central part of the plot. Features of the lake, hidden in a large extent on the eye with water, represent the main value to science and conservation. Lake is surrounded by mountain-taiga landscapes and specially protected natural areas, mainly preserved in its natural state, and representing an added value. LakeBaikal - a miracle of limnology and territory, with the following excellent qualities: The geological rift system, which gave rise to LakeBaikal, formed in the Mesozoic period. LakeBaikal is the oldest and deepest lake on Earth. Various tectonic forces are still in effect, as evidenced by the outputs of the thermal flow from the depths of the lake.
he evolution of aquatic organisms, occurred during this long period, has led to the formation of extremely unique endemic fauna and flora. LakeBaikal is the "Galápagos of Russia", represents exceptional value for the study of evolution. The picturesque landscape around LakeBaikal basin with mountains, boreal forests, tundra, lakes, islands and plains provides exceptionally beautiful surroundings of LakeBaikal. LakeBaikal - the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth (20% of world reserves), which further describes him as a unique phenomenon.
LakeBaikal - one of the most bioraznoobraznyh lakes on earth, it dwells 1,340 species (745 endemic) and 570 species (150 endemic). In the forests surrounding the lake, there are 10 species of plants listed in the Red Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and submitted to the full composition of the typical boreal species. Untouched nature of LakeBaikal, is well preserved in its natural state, is striking in its strength and harmony most of the guests Siberian lake. In the world there are not many places around the world is so magnificent and generous to a variety of beautiful landscapes, clean air and water is crystal clear. Huge protected territory on the shores of LakeBaikal, without roads and human presence allows travelers to see wild animals and rare plants, enjoy the unique natural landscapes, still untouched by civilization.
LakeBaikal is located in the south of Eastern Siberia. This is the deepest lake in the world, has unique features, and the most enormous store of fresh water on the planet. Among the lakes in the world it has no equal in age, depth, stocks and properties of water, diversity and endemism of organic life. Untouched nature much of the coast of the lake has preserved its primeval character and currently has a reserved mode. Since ancient times, Baykal called the sacred sea - a nice, gray and menacing. Among the many sonorous epithets, which gave the lake at different times, there are such as: "world's primary source of drinking water", "blue eye of Siberia", "an oasis of untouched nature, the Earth," "sacred center of North Asia", "bogodelannoe creation", the "sacred gift of nature, "a priceless treasure of the genetic wealth of the Earth", "miracle of limnology, the center of the unique natural values." A long list of epithets and diversity are not random: people from ancient times isolated LakeBaikal in Siberia from the environment as a sacred sea, his homage to the spirits, and bowing to his power and beauty. The unique features of Lake Baikal in December 1996 is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which in 2007 was listed 851 objects, including 660 cultural heritage sites, 166 natural heritage sites and 25 mixed type. LakeBaikal is a natural World Heritage sites.
LakeBaikal is unique and its tourism potential for a variety of travel at any time of year. Hardly any other region can offer such a variety of routes. In winter - on ice lake, ice skating, dog sledding, snowmobiling and aerohodah, in summer - sailing on yachts or luxury cruisers, all year round - sport fishing, diving and all sorts of travel in cars, on horseback and on foot along the coast. With the creation of special economic zones (SEZs) in the Baikal will ski resorts and hotels the world level.
The greatest number of trips on LakeBaikal occurs in summer, but there are fans of winter recreation, who wish to see the harsh Siberian winter and transparent Baikal ice. In February - March are popular both group and single-crossing the lake on the ice. New offer - multi-day expeditions on the ice of LakeBaikal on the amphibious air-cushion boat "Hivus-10". At any time of year Baikal in its own interest and is available for travel.
On the shores of LakeBaikal in recent years, many new modern tourist centers and private estates, can be stopped for the night and in winter. You can choose to relax a hunting retreat, stylized Mongolian yurt, or a comfortable base with satellite TV and swimming pool. But most of the trip to Baikal continues to be expeditionary in nature, with overnight stays in cabins boats or in tents in a forest fire. Trails on the shores of LakeBaikal are laid in all places of interest and allow a route at their discretion.
During the summer, about June 15 and September 1, interested persons can be accommodated on the tourist bases Lesser Seas, especially many of them built on the shores of the Gulf Muhor, as well as on m / b "Sandy", "Baikal Dunes", "Zama", " Maloe "," Enkhaluk "and others can use to travel on Lake Baikal on a scheduled steamer Barguzin.
WINTER. Winter trip to Siberia is hampered by severe climatic conditions, short daylight hours and a limited number of seats for a comfortable and warm night. In December, starts to get light at the ninth hour, and after five o'clock in the evening quickly darkens. In the third week of December come very cold (below minus 40 ° C), many roads are completely blocked with snow, and on paved highway often formed ice. In windless cold weather under your feet clearly crunching snow, trees are decorated with amazingly beautiful kurzhakom, which persists in December. Bays on LakeBaikal are beginning to freeze on the trees a few weeks, daily grow on the branches and reaching 1-2 cm in thickness, giving a unique flavor winter city streets.
Conditions of extreme cold atmosphere is filled with dense fog, through which a barely visible blue sky. Until mid-January, Southern Baikal does not freeze, water floats, hiding in the fog the opposite shore.
Freezing of the lake starts from the eastern shore of LakeBaikal in the north in the last week of December. In early January, the ice appears in Severobaikalsk, and later, by the end of January, the entire lake freezes. Routes on the ice of LakeBaikal is made possible by February. Transparent Baikal ice and sparkling hummocks particularly impressive in March. At this time, you can surf the fledgling frozen lake by car. At the end of winter is a powerful movements of the ice. Private transparent extruded from the ice floes and frozen upright form impassable fantastic hummocks, often taller than a man. The striking translucent Baikal ice hummocks, amazing blue ice blocks on the cleavages affect all visitors. Exceptional transparency of ice can see the bottom of the shelf near the coast and looking into the black depths of the lake. The ice thickness is imperceptible and is determined only in the field, speckled with cracks. Coastal cliffs in winter is often decorated with many-, sparkling in the sun with icy napleskami, intricate fence icicles and stalagmites. On the mirror surface of the ice is hard to resist a strong wind, but for athletes to iceboat - a field day. Near the coast in late winter, there are powerful thrusts of ice, which sometimes reach seven-meter height and remain unmelted at the lake all longer - until mid-May.
In March - April, especially popular car travel, skiing, traveling on iceboat, dog sledding, snowmobiling and biking on the frozen lake and ice fishing. In sunny weather on the ice heat, and a traveler during the day only one sweater. The intensity of sunlight, enhanced reflection from the ice, forcing the person to close the gauze bandages and wear sunglasses. In early April, blue mirrored ice begins to fade and covered with rough white crust, beneath which sometimes hides the water spilled on the ice.
Siberian cold. One of the stereotypes about Siberia, along with the removed the threes and bears, is an idea of binding is strong frosts, when, as they say in the old days, on the fly frozen poultry. Siberians love to talk, if time is not morgnesh, your eyes freeze. But the reality is likely to be in a really severe frosts were not so great. In southern Siberia cold below 30 ° C is only a few weeks for the whole winter, usually in late December and January. In recent years, due to global climate change, Siberian winters are much warmer.
During the fierce cold drastically changed the usual course of life. On the street where you would normally crowded and frost occur only occasional passers-by hurry: women with flushed faces and frosted eyelashes cover their noses mittens, men with collars rubbing on the way of frozen earlobes. On the north edge of the temperature can drop to -55 ° C in Irkutsk to ~ 40 ° C. To frost days is typical dense fog - because of the freezing river and industrial emissions. The mist so great that the outlines of buildings on the opposite side of the street just guessed, but the upper floors of tall buildings are generally invisible. Sharply reduced the number of cars on the roads, due to thick fog forced the drivers to go during the day with their headlights. At low temperatures, terminate sessions in schools, because of the increasing frost breakdowns disrupted the rhythm of public transport, and frequent power failure.
Searing breath of frosty air, there is already ten minutes after going outside. His eyes begin to tear, running from the nose and tingling skin. Frostbitten simple. Better not to risk it and wrapped his face in a scarf, leaving open only the eyes and often heated, stopping on the way to warmer rooms. Be sure to need warm clothes and shoes this winter. It is safest when severe frosts traditional Siberian boots. Any travel at low temperatures in the taiga without proper warm gear and without reliable places warm nights can be very extreme and dangerous.
SPRING. Those who wish to see the pristine beauty of LakeBaikal, without accumulation of tourists to its shores is better to come in early summer (from May 15 to June 10). At this time, Baikal only began to free the ice, the cold air is transparent and there are no fogs. At the water surface of the lake are rare boats and motor boats, and on the coast - tourists and fishermen. Traveling in May, is easy to imagine yourself a pioneer: the hundreds of kilometers around a single person. The only thing that can spoil the trip - the unpredictable spring weather, with frequent storms and smoke from possible forest fires, which every year, unfortunately, is becoming more and more. Every year in the Baikal region is 1,5-2 thousand fires in forests. Smoke from forest fires makes it difficult to take photographs and greatly restricts visibility.
When the ice on the lake is uneven. In the southern part of LakeBaikal - the beginning of May, in the north - in late May. Accumulations of ice floes on which seals like to relax, continue to swim in the north of the lake before the end of May, in some years - up to 5 ~ 10 June. To make sure to see the ice floes, one must time travel to coordinate with the ice conditions, for which you can use satellite images, systematically exhibited on the Internet. Traveling by boat in pursuit of the ice edge retreating to the north of the lake, you can watch seals on the ice at close range. Ice field on a blue expanse of lake, combined with snow peaks of coastal mountains and bright pink blossoms on the shores of Labrador tea leave a lasting impression. On the beaches of Barguzinsky and Baikal-Lena reserves at this time you can see the bears coming to the shore savored butterflies caddis flies, which reproduce rapidly, and lives only a few weeks in early summer. Until mid-June on LakeBaikal is still cool, and travel by boat on the lake better in warm clothing.
SUMMER. Regular passenger navigation on LakeBaikal begins after June 15. The best time to travel - from 15 June to 15 August. During this period, as a rule, it is worth a good sunshine, come the warmest days and nights. However, in these hot summer days on the coast of Lake Baikal flock to rest tens of thousands of citizens and tourists to find a free bay becomes difficult. In summer, the favorite vacation spots - on the shores of the SmallSea and Chi-vyrkuyskogoGulf, especially in places where you can reach by car, there are crowded tent camps, which looks more like a bustling city park than wilderness. In places where there are no roads, tourists are less common. And in the northern part of LakeBaikal, in the reserves, even in the peak tourist season meeting with someone unusual. If you move away from the coast into the mountains, disappearing trails and traces of people. Going on a trip through the taiga, it is necessary beforehand to be vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis.
AUTUMN. Late September, Indian summer, attracts artists and photographers bright autumn colors of the forest. On the shores of LakeBaikal - near SandyBay and the Gulf Chivyrkuy especially beautiful colorful mixed forests. Attractive in the late autumn bright yellow deciduous forests of the SmallSea coast. The changing fall weather with strong winds and frequent storms gives a special flavor Baikal landscapes.
Late autumn (15 October - 30 November) and early spring (15 April - 15 May) - the worst time for leisure and tourism in the Baikal region because of rainy weather, high winds, floods on the roads, overcast and gray skies. In early April until late May each year there are numerous fires, the smoke from which deprives the atmosphere of transparency. From 15 to 25 June in Irkutsk many poplar fluff.