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The history of navigation on the Baikal

Russian Baikal was opened in 1643. Returning from Yakutsk Cossacks built a lightweight rowing boats, crossed the strait and landed on Olkhon, as part of the detachment sailed around the lake to study and construction of a new jail.

The following was made the first long voyage on Lake Baikal all along its shores sailing-rowing-boats. The expedition gave a realistic picture of the lake, as a body of water, requires serious vessels.

In the fifties of the sixteenth century masters from Arkhangelsk in the White Sea and the Middle Volga build on Baikal ships for military expeditions: Kochi, kasovki, doshchaniks. Year 1660 is the year of the final development of Russian Baikal and Transbaikalia. Since then starts swimming with the economic and political objectives. Turns around the economic development of areas adjacent to Lake Baikal. Fisheries demanded the creation of special types of vessels. Since the mid-nineteenth century on the Baikal dvuhnaboynye used boats, pyatigrebki, networking, barges or boats, Nautical. The development of the eastern territories entailed an increase in passenger and freight traffic through Baikal. First karbas to Lake Baikal in Irkutsk was built in 1684. Until 1728 ships were built only for one flight.

In 1733 the Empress Anna Ivanovna asked the Captain-Commander Vitus Bering, to visit Lake Baikal, to prepare a detailed "Statement of local needs." The reference point of the expedition was Ambassadorial monastery, which Behring established the post station of the Baikal "to the border of the Chinese state" and set milestones. Since that time an email message, as well as the transportation of military commands, the exiled political parties, government supplies across the lake to be made on the state courts, armed with guns and manned by military commands, as the Baikal went to pirates and robbers. The main subject of plunder were merchant vessels.

The first military boat (sailing vessel) was launched in 1738. In 1754 in Irkutsk was opened Navigational School. The school has been preparing surveyors and navigators. At the same time was established Okhotsk Sea team, which was engaged in hydrographic survey of the shores of Lake Baikal, the device lighthouse on the lake.

From 1754 to 1784 at Lake Baikal were lined up four large vessels (boats). These vessels were built on the river Ushakovka, and then dragged the horses in the larch.
In the late eighteenth century at Irkutsk begins construction galliot. These vessels had two masts. Galiot "Nicholas" in his first voyage suffered a disaster - a girder Goloustnoe when a sudden north-westerly wind cherpanul water overboard and capsized.

Under construction Irkutsk Admiralty Court often failed, and quickly fell into disrepair. The main reason for this was that the drawings bots and galliot sent from St. Petersburg and set up the model ships. Built on these drawings of the court were not very suitable for swimming on Lake Baikal - were needed of the court "not fit", and special, Baikal design.

Court's private owners doshchaniks were well adapted to local situations. They brought salt, wine, food for residents of Transbaikalia. By 1839, at Lake Baikal was created entirely new type of vessel, its main feature - a flat bottom, and for stability in strong winds is very simple sail. In a storm of such a small boat is easier to hide in one of the many bays. Court, these walking only with a fair wind, and if the wind became a counter, then the ships tried to get into some bay on the sludge, which had expected a favorable wind, or put wheel straight and surrendered to the will of the waves as the boat was never brought to such a depth, where can be an anchor. With a fair wind vessels crossed the Baikal shore up the Ambassadors of the 12 - 15 hours, and to the mouth of the Selenga 15 - 20 hours.

Steam boat came to Baikal in 1843 - the first steamer Nicholas two with a capacity of 32 hp was launched. Along with a steam engine on it were set sails, which were used with a fair wind to increase speed.

Boilers and machinery for the first Baikal steamers had to be delivered in the winter across Siberia to the Urals by cartage. In 1848, on the Angara River, near the Bratsk, began to operate Nicholas ironworks. It produced ship machinery, and then metal hulls.

With the advent of steamships stopped the construction of sailing ships.
August 17, 1885 approved the Regulations Committee, Ministries of the organization towing shipping on the Angara. In 1905, on the lake were built the first ships - steam "Baikal" and the icebreaker Angara "for through traffic on the Trans-Siberian Railway.

Soviet history began shipping in 1918, when he was adopted by decree on the nationalization of the fleet. In the 30-s rivermen East Siberian shipping implement a large program to create the Irkutsk and Usolsky ship repair and shipyard in Listvyanka. At the same time built the pier: Irkutsk, Ulan - Ude and Port Baikal. During these years, the beginning of transportation on the rivers of Mongolia: Selenge, Orkhon, lake Kosogol (Hovsgol), built a special fleet for overseas transport.

In the postwar years to continue developing new and upgrading the existing fleet, the construction of onshore facilities. The construction of waterworks on the Angara has created deep-water routes in Bratsk, Irkutsk, Ilim reservoirs that allowed us to use large-capacity modern fleet. In 1966 the port was built Bratsk, Irkutsk was reconstructed EW Navy and shipyard, to build a port Svirsk, marina Ust - Uda and Balaganskii.

Shipping has always been a leader in the delivery of goods to the North. In the short time it was built six ships, 15 barges carrying capacity of 1300 tons. With the start of construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline vessels to Port Baikal BAM has carried over 840,000 tons of cargo. An important step in the technical equipment and re-fleet were 60 - 70-ies, when all was replaced by steam ships in the fleet. A fundamentally new was a passenger fleet: there were ships "Comet", "Sunrise", "Barguzin.

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