Tick-borne encephalitis - is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in Siberia. Having begun its spread to Asia 70 years ago, infected ticks now appeared already in the Baltic, the North Caucasus, in Western Europe. In the Irkutsk region found 7 species of mites are the most dangerous of the taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus), allergic bites in human blood virus encephalitis - the disease evolution with damage to the nervous system, with extremely high fatality rate as high as 40%. The tick is found in all forest areas Priangarye. The beginning of the season activity of ticks - April, ending the season in September. The highest activity of ticks observed in the second half of May until mid-June. The greatest number of ticks found in the forests, on the edges of forest roads and paths, on overgrown clearings.
The male reaches 2-2,5 mm long, female - 4 mm. Males, stuck to a man, and drink the blood for several hours, and females, if not timely detected for 10-12 days increased at a rate of 200-400 times. The movement of the mite on the human body and its suction is not being felt, often found already sucked mite, appearance is impossible to determine the infected or not. Infection occurs when human bites, when the germs enter the body with the saliva of infected ticks through the oral apparatus during krovososaniya. In most cases, infected by a virus about 2-5% of ticks, but in some places of the Irkutsk region, Irkutsk Oblast and the Republic of Buryatia region Kabansk contamination of up to 14% and above. When account is taken of insects with a standard flag on a linear route of 1 km in areas where the mite has spread, show an average of 300-500 individuals (Kabansk area - 911), in other areas - about 40-70. The favorite habitat of ticks - moist, dense, heavily littered with haphazard logging forest areas with very thick grass, overgrown underbrush mixed forests. At the habitable area (about horticulture, roads, trails) found mites than in areas untouched by man of the taiga. The tick does not tolerate direct sunlight and dry air. Distributed by the misconception that the tick jumps on the man with the smell of trees. In fact, sitting on the grass or bushes growing along roads and trails, the insects clinging to clothes passing man. Then move to the free clothing parts of the body, usually on the back, neck, scalp, axillary and inguinal region, where more delicate skin. Tick pierce the skin sharp proboscis and drinks the blood, while a person can be transmitted diseases such as Q fever, tularemia, Lyme disease and the most dangerous - tick-borne encephalitis.
Over the past decade in the Irkutsk region showed a substantial increase in the number of ticks containing the TBE virus. In 1993, Angara tick-borne encephalitis ill 128 people in 1995 - 295 in 1998 - 350, 2000 - 477. In 1999 marked the highest activity of parasites, registered 545 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 308 - Lyme disease. For comparison, in 1977 there were 4 cases of Lyme disease. The foci of TBE are close to major settlements. In 2001, for assistance in medical institutions of Irkutsk asked 9583 people. In 2007 - more than 11 000 people. In the vicinity of Angarsk TBE virus was found in 21% of ticks delivered for laboratory analysis, in the vicinity of Shelekhov - 25%, in the forests around the neighborhood Irkutsk - 30,6%.
Among the places where the mite has spread, leading Kabansky district of the Republic of Buryatia and Irkutsk regions near: Mill Pad on the left bank of the Angara River, Baikal tract, especially the 17 th, 21 th, 26 th km Goloustnensky tract, especially in the vicinity Pivovarihi; Kultuk tract, in the district. Zazary. When driving on an infected tick area have every 10 ~ 15 minutes to inspect themselves and remove from the body of 5-10 insects.
At Olkhon cases bite tick encephalitis have been reported, although on the coast of the Small Aral Sea has already reported cases of the tick bite. On the shores of LakeBaikal taiga tick is less common, although in recent years, its appearance is fixed in the ground, where he had never met, in particular on the trail from the village. Listvyanka to the Big Goloustnoe and SandyBay area (river and opposite Shumilikha Baklanov stone).
Tick-borne encephalitis. In the Irkutsk region in cases of fatal about 3% of the amount of bite, the same number - in cases of persistent palsy.
In mild cases after the bite there may be only an increase in temperature. The disease usually occurs after 5-30 days after tick tick, but usually after 10-14 days. The first symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis are similar to influenzal diseases, the diseased temperature rises up to 37,5-38 degrees, there are weakness, headache, nausea, irritability. After a tick bite are advised to go to a hospital for medical help to disease is not passed into the chronic form. The most effective means of prevention - vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis, which needs to be done in advance, in November - March, no less than 44 days before the date of departure to the forest. Vaccinations do not give complete protection from infection encephalitis, but much easier course of the disease. In the absence of vaccination must be entered protivokleschevoy immunoglobulin in the first three days after being bitten in special laboratories. Take a trip vials immunoglobulin doctors do not recommend, as required strict compliance with the conditions of storage at +2 to +8 ° C. Immunoglobulin is prepared from plasma containing specific antibodies to TBE virus. Technology of preparation requires 285 days.
Lyme disease (tick-borne Lyme disease). This infection is still a few years ago was not known and recorded as a tick-borne encephalitis. Found that Lyme disease is caused by another agent - Borrelias, so the treatment and prevention requires other methods. The causative organism of Lyme disease ticks are infected more often than tick-borne encephalitis. This disease is far more insidious TBE.
The disease develops in 10-30 days after the tick tick. Characteristic features - the appearance of painful red spots around the site of the bite and fever. If at this time not to carry out appropriate treatment, it may develop chronic disease of the joints, skin, nervous and cardiovascular systems. The danger lies in the fact that chronic disease in 5-6 months, and sometimes two years suddenly barks aggravation in the form of encephalitis, meningitis, at a time when no one relates the problems encountered with long-time tick bite, thinking it was a complication after influenza or other disease. It is difficult to diagnose and properly assign treatment. A vaccine against tick-borne borreliosis has not yet been developed. Therefore focuses on the early detection and treatment of disease.
Tick rickettsiosis. The disease is transmitted by the bite of steppe species of mite. 3-5 days after the bite fever, swelling of the axillary or inguinal lymph nodes, skin rash. Serious consequences, usually does not happen.
In all cases, the temperature increases and the appearance of other signs of illness after a tick bite should consult a doctor.
PRECAUTIONS. To not be afraid to tick bites, you advance (in the autumn or winter, in November-March) to make a preventive vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. The disease is easier to prevent than to cure. The deadline for vaccination Moscow vaccine - February 25, Austrian and Germany - on March 25.
For immunizations must have a policy of compulsory medical insurance, a certificate of contraindications, a passport.
The first vaccine is given for 44 days, the second - for 14 days before departure to the place of the hearth.
When working in the forest for protection against ticks used special clothing with a hood made of thick fabric. On the sleeves and trousers stitched gum, with which clothes tight to the wrists and ankles that prevents tick crawling on the body. Used as a means to scare ticks, such as "death metal", protivokleschevoy pencil to be plotted on the tissue under the knees and around the rib cage.
While traveling through the forest should be carried out samoosmotry, or even better-examinations of each other (as often as possible, because the active mites suck after 15 minutes). Pay particular attention should inspect the skin on the head, behind the ears, armpits, groin area and neck. After the inspection body should carefully check the clothes. In the morning and before bedtime should carefully inspect the tent and bedding.
Bivouac be arranged away from trees and shrubs, on a sunny and cleared of dry grass and brushwood place.
Clothes hould not be red, orange or bright colorful, because it complicated the detection of female taiga tick, which has the back brick-red color. For the same reason should not be in the woods clothing from wool, corrugated fabric or velvet, because the uneven surface also complicates the detection of the mite.
If mites sucked, you should lubricate it with oil, grease, gasoline or cover an open bottle of water for 10-15 minutes to close the spiracle, wait for it to suffocate, and then careful swinging movements drawn from the body. Avoid intense burn his cologne or alcohol, it can lead to death and drying of the mite, which would complicate its removal. Do not pull the tick with the hot items - burn it out of the skin will not work. With skill, you can remove the insect thread, making a loop and drawing out the threads in different directions. Then the slow movements rocking the tick and pull. The wound was treated with indine or alcohol. Hands washed with soap and water.
HOW TO PROPERLY SAVE ticks for laboratory analysis. Ticks should be placed in a glass jar or plastic bag and as soon as possible by avoiding drying out, deliver to the laboratory for the study. It is recommended that a jar with an insect to put a damp cloth, to avoid hot and sunny places for storage. Ticks can be stored in the refrigerator or another cool place. Prophylaxis against tick-borne encephalitis is effective only in the first 4 days after inoculation. Clinical prevention of tick-borne infections is in Irkutsk at Karl Marx, 3. Tel. 33-34-45. Open daily from 8.00 am to 16.00 except Saturday and Sunday.
Encounter with the bear
The owner called the taiga brown bear. Predatory and powerful beast, the hero of many Siberian legends, Pribaikalsky bear different aggressiveness and has one of the highest rates in the world in the number of attacks on people, especially in lean years.
Bear is inherently dangerous. Leading experts on bears say that the danger created by people, if they are not familiar with the nature of the beast. Bears should not feel threatened by man. We recommend that in habitats of animals to speak out loud from time to time a loud clap to the appearance of people was not unexpected for a bear. If he fell and hit his paw, we must not turn away his eyes. If you do not move, the bear loses interest in the object. If you do not show fear and do not make any sudden movements that may frighten the animal, the bear does not attack first. It is dangerous to approach the cubs. Seasoned hunters talking to the bears when they met, tone of voice to convince the animal to leave. Even unarmed encounter with a bear can end happily, if a person will behave confidently, for example, will stick in his hand and will ostentatiously sharpen her, a manifestation of resistance of the animal perceives as a sign of strength. You should never run away from the bear, so as not to arouse in him the instinct of the beast, pursuing prey. It is usually characterized by snorts to warn of approaching people about their presence, when the roaring, be feared attack. Short and high jumps to the side - an element of intimidation bear, pursed ears ryavkane and rapid jumps straight - a sign of attack. The bear is able to make leaps of up to 5 meters, so it's best to avoid meeting with him.
Bears can be found in the Barguzin and Baikal-Lena reserves, HolyNosePeninsula, in the mountains of the coast of the SmallSea. An unexpected meeting may occur in almost any taiga site, although as a rule, the animal first detects the presence of a number of human and manages to escape unnoticed. Due to the large number of bears is one of the forest areas of the Baikal-Lena Reserve called "Coast of brown bears." In June, when the animals in large numbers are regularly out on the shore of Lake Baikal, travel in the reserve is prohibited. Bears in the spring on the shores of Northern Lake Baikal is not uncommon. Captain V. Samples told an entertaining story, as in the 2005 spring ChivyrkuyBay kosolopy made it impossible to pay off and not let people on the shore. Just waiting for his departure, was sailing away from shore and not to meet again m, sail away on the opposite western shore, on CapeAnyutha. But there is history to repeat itself, another unfriendly bear again, do not let people on the shore. Disheartened tourists have asked to go there, where the animals will not scare them. At night the boat landed at CapeKocherikovskom, where vacationers go to steam in the sauna, but here it is again out to a huge bear, not a little frightened women with basins.
There are times when frightened tourists return to the route because of the aggressive behavior of bears, prevented the entry of people into the thicket pribaikalskoy forests. Sometimes you see just before the five animals on the beach in the Barguzin reserve, but the huntsman of the Baikal-Lena Reserve counted for one trip record congestion at CapeShartlay - 36 Bruin on moryanah coast. The recommendations of the rangers is even appropriate wording: "Tourists are not recommended in the spring to put up tents on the pebble beaches of the high probability of encounter with the bears."
In the taiga to meet the beast is very difficult. However, LakeBaikal is the time when the appearance of bears on the shore is in the nature of mass regularly recurring phenomenon. At the same time you can see a few animals and photograph them luck. This occurs during the mass flight of Caddis, in early June, when the rocks literally blackened by a great number of insects. They are a source of food for many animals, for the bears, they serve as a special treat. Clumsy, usually appear at dawn or before sunset and spend several hours on shore, turning stones and licking them with Caddis.
Bear Eats animal and plant food. Eating pine nuts, berries, roots and succulent stems of grasses. Digs burrows of chipmunks, wood mice and other small animals, some of which pulled the cattle, cutting of wild hoofed animals, eating carrion, insects and their larvae. Bear sighted, but it is highly developed sense of smell. When meeting with a bear needs to be careful, better to hide and move on. Tuvans recommend at a meeting with the beast, nose to nose with respect and calmly try to persuade him to go into the forest and not harm. If the bear goes, do not let him. Do not try to approach him or pursue to make rare photographs. Never run from the beast: it runs faster than a human and still catch up with you. Moving away from him is a bear instinct prosecution. The most dangerous encounter with a she-bear in July during the rut. If you see cubs, then next bear. Bear curious and may try to play with you, never close to them do not stay, quickly run away. Bear to see you next to their calves, would protect them. In the case of an unexpected meetin<