Our century - a century of travel. How many people resting in the lap of nature! And how many tourists from all over the country come to Baikal? According to preliminary data - about 400,000 each year. At the weekend the whole flow of vehicles rushing to the forest, trains and buses taken away "the nature of" tens of thousands of people. I am not against cars, do not mind modern transport facilities and amenities it provides. So how much for this magnificent scenery slip by unnoticed! Only direct contact with the little wonders of nature enriches a person makes it heartier. And learn the beauty, he will not be able to behave carelessly and the natural environment or cause irreparable harm to her sometimes. I am deeply convinced that the unique natural phenomena should be treated the same way as for the outstanding works of art, because they are a rich source of emotional education and aesthetic enjoyment.
The main purpose of this book - to acquaint the reader with the unique monuments of nature and remind you: Be careful, be careful, be careful always and everywhere, when it comes to the world around us.
Travelling on its pages, you'll learn about a variety of landscape areas with geological, botanical and zoological attractions, visit the exquisite beauty of mountain rivers and wide expanse of lake. You may be interested in the curious natural phenomena associated with earthquakes, volcanic activity and the activity of water and wind. Maybe your interest will tell them that in the Baikal watershed are preserved and not preserved some of the relict plant forms. Thoughtful, visiting with the author in the labyrinth of underground kingdom. Want themselves to meet with the fairy tale nature - waterfalls. Find out what each of them - their temperament, their sound has its own unique charm. How many more mysteries inherent in the original nature UshkaniyeIslands? A unique landscapes with mysterious phenomena of nature - "a garden of stones", "singing" sand - is to list them all! .. So...
A little bit about what a natural monument
Nature is generous to the Baikal is known to all. And the richness of life forms, and the beauty of landscapes, and the mark of history (and geology, and human) - all here in abundance. And above it all - a threat if not total destruction (no, this, thank God, yet we are not talking), then at least the destruction of many relationships, the disappearance of many parts that only in the aggregate, and it was a miracle - Baikal. But completely remove it from the lives of people, making the reserve, it is impossible. People for centuries have lived on the shores of the lake-sea, will live in the future. Hence, the yield for the Baikal miracles to protect them separately in the system of nature reserves and national parks. And where they are not "tightly focused", where each of them must be protected in the rank of a natural monument.
This term has appeared in Science by the famous naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt. That he once met an unusual size and age of tree, called it a natural monument. Definition taken root, and since then the concept is widely used.
In Russia public Nature conservation movement began in the early XIX century. Initiators of it were scientists first raised questions about the need to preserve rare species of plants, animals and other entities of nature conservation measures and the harmonization with the decision of scientific, cultural and educational problems. Much has been made in this direction the Moscow Society of Naturalists, founded in 1805 and continues to exist today.
One of the major initiators of environmental movement has been a professor of Moscow State University G. Kozhevnikov, who in 1908 on the Jubilee acclimatization congress in Moscow, said: "It's not just about preserving the forest with its typical population, but also about preserving every detail of the natural landscape, even if small and insignificant: a brook, a rock, large boulders, old wood - all natural monuments ... And if we do not take special measures to protect the pristine nature (such as fauna and flora), then it will disappear without a trace taken over her place of cultural change nature deceives us with their one-sided wealth, obscuring the image of a disappeared past.
Another enthusiast for nature protection was Academician IP Borodin. In 1910 at the XII Congress of Russian naturalists and physicians, he made a report "On the conservation of vegetation, interesting from a botanical respect." And in 1912, with his assistance in the Russian Geographic Society was founded Permanent Nature conservation commission, which has set as a policy objective "... to awaken interest in the general population in Russia and to actually preserve intact the individual sites or entire districts, individual screen plants and animals.
After the October Revolution on Lenin's initiative was issued several decrees for the protection of nature: in 1919 - the establishment of the Astrakhan Nature Reserve and the Protection of resort areas in 1920 - the establishment of Ilmensky mineralogical reserve, 16 September 1921 - to protect monuments nature, gardens and parks. This decree stipulates that "... areas of nature and the individual works it (animals, plants, rocks, etc.), representing the scientific, cultural and historical value and in need of protection, may be declared sacrosanct monuments ... Nature.
Intensive economic development of the territory and decisive attack on the natural environment of LakeBaikal started in the 60's. During this period we have built the infamous Baikal Pulp and Paper and Selenge pulp and paper factory, whose emissions pose a mortal danger to the lake. There was the threat of destruction of the ecosystem of the Baikal region, had been partially destroyed retained in pristine areas of the Baikal shores and river valleys with peculiar forms of plants and animals, air was contaminated with harmful substances.
It would seem that a number of decisions of the Party and Government on LakeBaikal (1969, 1971, 1977) will help save the lake and its surroundings from the gradual destruction. But, alas, all these directives were simply unrealistic. Finally, the latest ruling on April 13, 1987 № 434 "About measures on maintenance and management of natural resources in the basin of LakeBaikal in the 1987-1995.", According to the established now hardship of economic, social and environmental plan, it may be just another paper .
Built on LakeBaikal ecological situation has stirred up the general public. Very violent was the reaction of the local population to dictate federal and republican ministries. Great wave rolled in Irkutsk movement for the abolition of one of the last points of objection and order the transfer of sewage into the river of the Baikal plant Irkut, and it has been canceled. Now there is a growing new movement for the immediate conversion of Selenge Complex. In September 1988, in Listvyanka (Irkutsk region) was All-Union activities have an "Baikal". This two-week meeting it became clear that the specific position of scientists, industrialists and the public, an attempt was made to develop joint solutions to Baikal. This interesting dialogue going on. With Moscow methodologists, headed by S. Popov announced another game called 'The analysis of the prospects and development opportunities Slue-dyanskogo district in early August 1989 in Baikalsk. From 26 March to 3 April 1990 in Selenginsk (Buryat ASSR) at the initiative of the Irkutsk methodologists held organizational activities have played on the theme: "Development of possible strategies for changing environmental and economic situation in the region of Lake Baikal and the public examination conducted Selenge plant on an analysis of possible strategies for changing environmental conditions in Kabansk area. The next step is the question of the future development and Ol'khon Olkhon.
Further fate of LakeBaikal to decide the new territorial complex schemes of nature protection of LakeBaikal (TerKSOP), prepared in 1988 by the design institute "Giprogor. Important role to play and scientific developments and the recommendations of scientists of the Irkutsk and Buryat centers USSR SB. In particular, on their basis of the document, according to which the Baikal should be declared a World Heritage Site. Prepared by a very interesting project on the organization at the Baikal International Science Environment Centre with the organization bases Listvyanka in Ambassadorial on Olkhon in Chivyrkue, AyayaBay and in the Slyudyanka lakes.
While preparing this book, I was drawn "map of protected natural areas of LakeBaikal" the scale of 1:1 000 000. It was included in TerKSOP Baikal and in the new Atlas of Lake Baikal, on display in the pavilion Nature Conservancy and the Exhibition of Economic Achievements Exhibition "Ecology-89" in Ulan-Ude. In 1991, map out a separate edition. On the first map for the basin of Lake Baikal shows a dense network of protected natural objects - 3 reserves, 2 national parks, 28 nature reserves (3 of them - Republican) and 267 individual protected areas of land with the status of natural monuments. But despite this, still a significant part of unique natural objects remains outside the boundaries of protected areas.
And yet, what is meant by "natural monument"? Quick and precise definition gives Collegiate Dictionary: "Monuments of nature - a natural objects having scientific, historical or cultural-educational and aesthetic values (waterfalls, geological outcrops, unique trees, etc.), protected by the state."
The very question of what natural objects deserve to be called their sites is a lot of disputes, although sometimes it seems that there is nothing complicated and requires special proof. For example, not every plant that has medicinal properties, as well as its place of growth can be considered a natural monument. Here we must proceed from the specific situations, determine if the plant is endangered or it is typical for the area. Of the many geological outcrops choose those that contain fossil fauna or rich spores and pollen, demonstrating the geological record of the distant past. Such an approach is needed for other natural objects.
At present, natural monuments made subdivided into geological (geomorphology), water (hydro), botanical, zoological, natural history and landscape (complex). And on purpose, they may be purely scientific profile, to have training and educational, aesthetic, recreational, recreational or cultural-historical value.
On the territory of the monument itself and within 200 meters around it prohibits any activity that threatens its survival. In contrast, reserves and sanctuaries for nature monuments did not provide the staff and rangers. Here, protected by the (collective and state farms, forestry, etc.) themselves guard, monitor the condition and maintenance of monuments, prevent their deterioration and destruction shall take effective measures, if the monument to something safe.
If a natural monument to announce a single object (eg, wood), around the protected zone is allocated a minimum width of 50 meters. And usually the area of natural monument is set within 150 hectares, but it can also be increased, if it depends on the integrity and environmental sustainability of the protected object.
The organization of the monuments of nature provides a reserved or registered a protection regime. The preservation mode is set only in exceptional cases, when their value and vulnerability of natural monument worthy of a full withdrawal from economic use, custom same way - when the natural object is less vulnerable.
The development of modes of being for each object, given its sensitivity and vulnerability, the reality of the necessary protective measures. In this regime bans can be both permanent and temporary (for a specified period) or seasonal.
What may represent security measures? This whole system of prohibitions on all sorts of activities. On the territory of the monuments may be prohibited:
for geological monuments of nature - removal of loose rocks and soils, damage to individual landforms and geologic outcrops, burial objects dumps, garbage dumps and the flooding of their artificial reservoirs; plowing territory and mineral resources; violation of permafrost and an adjacent building and other works;
Water monuments - to change the natural level of water tables, hydrological and hydro-chemical composition, cultivation and destruction of the banks of reservoirs, destruction of bank-water and swamp vegetation, use of swimming motor vehicles of all kinds;
for botanical monuments - plowing territory; logging, except health, changes in species composition of vegetation, and collecting flowers, leaves, berries, roots and other plant parts, harvesting the juice, holding the bilge or other reclamation work;
Run and grazing; meadow and steppe areas - mowing;
for zoological nature monuments must prohibit any action that can impair the habitat of protected species. So, may be banned: visit (in the nestling period); run and grazing, and all kinds of logging, including the cleaning of dead wood (especially when old trees are home to the nest); changing water regime. In some cases, appropriate prohibition or restriction of fishing and hunting.
For any natural monuments and provides some general restrictions: not allowed to arrange parking, camp, camping, walking and riding outside of marked paths, to cultivate the land, apply pesticides (including herbicides), to build any facilities.