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NATIONAL PARKS AND RESERVES AT BAIKAL

The idea of national parks was proposed in 1832 by the American scientist and the artist George Catlin. In 1864, California was established first in the world, Yosemite National Park. In 1872 the U.S. was established Yellowstone National Park, covering a vast territory. Now 124 countries have national parks and nature reserves, which aim - protection of unique natural areas and animals. National Parks in Russia began to take shape only in 1970. The first of these, Samarskaya Luka, was established in the Volga region. On the shores of Lake Baikal have 3 reserves and 2 national parks. The system of state reserves of Russia includes 100 nature reserves (2000) and 31 National Park (1999), which protect 30 million hectares, or nearly 1.5% of the total area of Russia, which exceeds the territory of Belarus, Latvia and Estonia combined. In reserves where all human activities is prohibited, except for scientific research. Even the access of people there is very limited.

In the Baikal region are the following national parks and reserves.

Baikal National Park. Baikal National Park (PNP) was founded in 1986 on the western shore of Lake Baikal. The protected area of the park in a narrow strip of land adjacent to the lake, a width of 1 to 8 km, stretches nearly 470 km of the coast from the village. Kultuk to Cape Kocherikovskogo, on the border with the Baikal-Lena Reserve. In the park is also the largest island in Lake Baikal - Olkhon. The total area is 417,297 ha. There are 10 forest districts. As a protected area it is among the five largest national parks in Russia. 284.7 thousand hectares (70% of the park) is covered by forests, of which 22 thousand hectares - the woods. Pine forests predominate, often with an admixture of larch. On divides a small area occupied by pine and cedar and fir forests on the slopes rarely - spruce. Landscape Baikal National Park is very diverse and picturesque. Mountain-taiga slopes of the Primorsky Range, with elevations from 1100 m to the south to 1500 m in the north cut the relatively large rivers flowing into Lake Baikal: Goloustnaya, Buguldeika, Anga, Sarma. These rivers form a beautiful rocky gorge and some of them - big delta. In the park there are tourist mecca - Sandy Bay, a kind of lip Anga and Aya bay, warm bays of the Small Sea. The majestic cliffs, rocks and the coast often have a distinct individual character and are own names: the Large and Small Bell, Burhan-cape Sagan-Hushun, Cape Khoboy. Peculiar and beautiful steppe landscape in the middle part of the coast and in the south Olkhon. The low rocky ridges, rocky outcrops, the valley of salt lakes have a mysterious charm of the ancient nature of Central Asia. Of particular interest are the relict steppe. At Lake Baikal their large tracts are located only in Pribaikalsky park. It remains tundro-steppe late Cenozoic, interesting for its surviving species in previous eras. The flora of the park has more than 1,344 species of plants, about 250 species of lichen and 200 - mosses. This is more than half the flora of Central Siberia. Scientists note among them a large number of relics and endemics (in the federal Red Book includes 31 species of plants in the Red Data Book of plants of the Irkutsk Region (2001) introduced 110 species). Within the national park grows 21 endemic species: Astragalus Olkhon, kopeck zunduksky, pickerel Turchaninova, cotoneaster Popova, Oxytropis trehlisty, Peshkova, Popova, etc.

Fauna is also rich and varied. The park has 64 species of mammals, including carnivores - 14, ungulates - 6, about 340 species of birds. On the small rocky islands of the Lesser Seas are the largest on Lake Baikal herring gull colony, relatively large nesting ducks (scoter, hook-nosed, middle, and red-breasted merganser). The park is found 7 species of eagles and eagles, a special value is a unique grouping of solar nesting eagle Aquila heliaca. The park had the status of natural monuments 52 sites. In the national park, a network Cordon campsites, where visitors can relax (base "Taiga", Scientific Production Base "incense" base "Young Hawk" in Ongurenskom forestry, shelter "Semyonikha" in the village. B. Goloustnoe). Visiting information centers PNP open in Irkutsk,. Listvyanka, Elantsy, Big Goloustnoe. The habitats of rare species of plants and animals receive a large number of tourists. Rules recommended by the Baikal National Park to minimize possible damage to flora and fauna of tourists and nature, are as follows: "Do not come and see me on the cars on the pebbly capes and spit in the Small Sea. It is here that inhabit many of the plants - endemics and relics. Wheels cars are for them now, the main danger, because there are many sleeper considering such braids as a continuation of dirt roads. There should be no such duty and tent park. The same applies to the sand dunes in the northern coast Olkhon. You can not go on land without roads and drive away from the road by more than 50 m. The grass cover in the park is very fragile and slowly recovering, the trace of the car remains in decades.

Without permission from the TNG prohibited the collection of biological collections (including herbaria). In general, do not pick any particular need plants do not engage in the unauthorized extraction of medicinal plants, as well as firewood and other wood material for industrial and tourist purposes. Use a cooking gas stove, brought with him from the city.

Avoid any action with the fire, which can lead to inadvertent ignition of forest or steppe vegetation, and when it detects a fire to try and quickly extinguished. Seeing a forest fire, you should notify the nearest forest TNG.

Accidentally finding a nest of any bird (no matter - the eagle on top of the tree, or oatmeal on the ground), do not touch the eggs or chicks, do not place near their tents. Do not catch a young, still poorly flying or running birds and animals (even squirrels).

Do not kill snakes - they have the right to life, and in the TNG violators of this law face fines.

Chita State National Park. The park, organized in 1986, covers Chivyrkuisky Bay, Holy Nose Peninsula, the archipelago Ushkany the island with the largest rookery in Baikal seals. The park is located in the middle of the east coast of the lake. Its area - 267.17 ha. Forest land covers 158.6 hectares; marshes - 77,0 thousand hectares Sands - 0,4 thousand hectares.

At 40% of the park entered the reserved mode. It prohibited any economic and recreational activities and environmental regime remains calm, which allows you to maintain populations of animals and birds at an optimal level. In the park includes Ushkany Islands - one of the favorite habitat of the famous Lake Baikal seals - the seal, which is the calling card of Lake Baikal. In the park are 5 foot tourist routes, among which is the route to Mount Markovo, the highest mountain peak Holy Nose Peninsula, overlooking cyclorama Ushkaniye Islands Chivyrkuy bay and sandy beaches Barguzinsky Bay.

For the most picturesque places in the park include Ongokonskaya Bay Chivyrkuy Bay tract Cheremshanskaya grove overgrown with willows, the lake Arango-tai. In the cliffs of St Nose has many caves, grottoes. Popular among the local population and tourists are the three outputs of mineral sources: Snake Culine swamps and Nechayev.

The park has 299 species, 3 species of amphibians and 3 species of reptiles. Birds are 241 species, among them such rare as peregrine falcon, black crane, golden eagle, black stork, white-Pallas, white-tailed eagle, etc.

STATE NATIONAL PARK TUNKA. Tunkinsk National Park, established May 27, 1991 in administrative boundaries Tunkinsky area. The park occupies Tunka Valley and adjacent mountains of the Eastern Sayan Mountains and Hamar-Daban (maximum elevation 3172 m). Between Tunka range and Hamar-Daban is intermountain Tunkinskaia depression 200 km and a width of 20 to 40 km. Throughout the on Tunka valley from south to north flowing river Irkut - the left tributary of the Angara. The park - 1,183.6 hectares (150.8 hectares of land is under agricultural land). The park is well mastered. Most Tunka valley occupied by pastures, hayfields and pastures. The park grows more than 10 rare and endangered plant species: Peony (Maryin root), day-lily little, buttercup Sayan, buckthorn krushinovskaya, Rhodiola rosea, mannagetteya Hummel and others, are more than 40 species of mammals and 62 species of birds recorded in the Red Book Buryatia.

Tunkinskaia Valley is famous for its mineral springs. The most well known are Arshan, Nil Deserts, Pearl. These resorts are not far from the highway A-164, and they laid a good road. Are popular carbonated radon springs Shumak, glandular sources Khongor-Uuly.

Barguzinsky State Biosphere Reserve. Established in 1916 Barguzinsky Reserve became the first Russian hunting reserve. Its objective was the preservation and study of sable. Today it is the oldest nature reserve in Russia. In 1986 he received the status of Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO.

The reserve is located on the northeast coast of Lake Baikal, in the central part of the western slopes of the Barguzin ridge (highest point 2,472 m). The snow cover on the balds than 2,5 meters, which is 5 times greater than on the shore of Lake Baikal. More than half of the reserve account balds - rocky top (1500-2400 m above sea level). About 60% it takes bald belt, most of which is covered Alpine meadows, almost impenetrable thickets of cedar and dwarf birch - shrubby birch and willow. In large areas are almost lifeless rocks and stony placers. One-third occupied by mountain-taiga forests, growing at altitudes from 600 to 1250 m. Only a little over 16% of the reserve account on the Baikal coast. The length of coast of the lake - about 100 km. Total length of borders - more than 320 km. The area of the reserve is 374,346 hectares, including the biosphere polygon (111 146 ha) and water area of Lake Baikal (15 000 hectares). Area Biosphere Reserve, without landfill - 263.2 thousand hectares.

Fauna Reserve Barguzinsky typical taiga, but with some peculiarities caused by the mountainous terrain and proximity of Lake Baikal. Includes 41 species of mammals and 274 species of birds, 6 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 50 species of fish and over 1200 identified species of insects.

Addressed to the slopes of the Baikal Barguzinsky ridge rising to a height of 2652 meters above sea-level. They are cut by a dense network of valleys, among which the canyon four major rivers: Sosnovka Tarkulika, Big and Kabanov, originating at the tops Barguzin range. Total in the reserve 17 rivers flowing into Lake Baikal. Their watersheds are located entirely in the protected area.

In river valleys Ezovki, Large, and gave Talamusha are hot springs with water temperatures in some of them above 70 ° C.

The reserve has 874 species of plants. Many years of protection Barguzin preserve a favorable impact on the number of animals. I bear it reaches in good years 250 individuals in protein - from 5000 to 10 000 animals.

Tourists are allowed two routes: from the village. Davshe and the cordon in the Bay Sosnovka the upper river. Shumilikha (14 km).

BAIKAL-Lena Park. Baikal-Lena State Reserve, was organized in 1986, is located on the northwestern shore of Lake Baikal in Kachugskogo and Olkhon Irkutsk region. Its area is 659,919 hectares. This is the largest conservation area on Lake Baikal (14-th place in Russia). The reserve stretches from south to north along the west coast of the lake about 120 km at an average width of 65 km. The perimeter of its borders is about 520 km, 112 of which were on the shore of the lake. The reserve includes the coast of Lake Baikal region. Heyrema to Cape Elokhin, impenetrable plot of the Baikal Range and headwaters of the great Siberian river Lena and its tributaries. Lena th length (4400 km) took first place in Russia and 10th in the world. At Cape Elokhin the border of the Irkutsk Region Republic of Buryatia.

The bulk of the reserve before the taiga forests of various types. On the shore of Lake Baikal the fragments of ancient relic steppes. Flora of higher plants, the reserve includes 920 species, of which 36 species - endemic to Siberia, 10 of them are included in the federal Red Book. Widely represented as mosses (230 species), lichens (248 species) and mushrooms (about 100 species).




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