idea of national parks was proposed in 1832 by the American scientist and the
artist George Catlin. In 1864, California
was established first in the world, YosemiteNational Park. In 1872 the U.S. was established YellowstoneNational Park,
covering a vast territory. Now 124 countries have national
parks and nature reserves, which aim - protection of unique natural areas and
animals. National Parks
began to take shape only in 1970. The first of these, Samarskaya
Luka, was established in the Volga region. On the shores of LakeBaikal
have 3 reserves and 2 national parks. The
system of state reserves of Russia
includes 100 nature reserves (2000) and 31 National Park (1999), which protect
30 million hectares, or nearly 1.5% of the total area of Russia, which exceeds the territory
of Belarus, Latvia
combined. In reserves where all human activities
is prohibited, except for scientific research. Even the access of people there
is very limited.
the Baikal region are the following national parks and reserves.
BaikalNational Park. BaikalNational Park
(PNP) was founded in 1986 on the western shore of LakeBaikal.
The protected area of the park
in a narrow strip of land adjacent to the lake, a width of 1 to 8 km, stretches nearly 470 km of the coast from the
village. Kultuk to CapeKocherikovskogo,
on the border with the Baikal-Lena Reserve. In the park is also the largest
island in LakeBaikal - Olkhon. The total area is 417,297 ha. There are 10 forest districts. As a protected area it is among
the five largest national parks in Russia. 284.7 thousand hectares (70% of
the park) is covered by forests, of which 22 thousand hectares - the woods. Pine forests predominate, often
with an admixture of larch. On divides a small area occupied
by pine and cedar and fir forests on the slopes rarely - spruce. LandscapeBaikalNational Park is very
diverse and picturesque. Mountain-taiga slopes of the PrimorskyRange,
with elevations from 1100 m
to the south to 1500 m
in the north cut the relatively large rivers flowing into LakeBaikal:
Goloustnaya, Buguldeika, Anga, Sarma. These rivers form a beautiful
rocky gorge and some of them - big delta. In the park there are tourist
mecca - SandyBay,
a kind of lip Anga and Aya bay, warm bays of the SmallSea.
The majestic cliffs, rocks and
the coast often have a distinct individual character and are own names: the
Large and Small Bell, Burhan-cape Sagan-Hushun, CapeKhoboy.
Peculiar and beautiful steppe
landscape in the middle part of the coast and in the south Olkhon. The low rocky ridges, rocky
outcrops, the valley of salt lakes have a mysterious charm of the ancient
nature of Central Asia. Of particular
interest are the relict steppe. At LakeBaikal
their large tracts are located only in Pribaikalsky park. It remains tundro-steppe late
Cenozoic, interesting for its surviving species in previous eras. The flora of
the park has more than 1,344 species of plants, about 250 species of lichen and
200 - mosses. This is more than half the flora
of Central Siberia. Scientists note among them a
large number of relics and endemics (in the federal Red Book includes 31
species of plants in the Red Data Book of plants of the Irkutsk Region (2001)
introduced 110 species). Within the national park grows
21 endemic species: Astragalus Olkhon, kopeck zunduksky, pickerel Turchaninova,
cotoneaster Popova, Oxytropis trehlisty, Peshkova, Popova, etc.
Fauna is also
rich and varied. The park has 64 species of
mammals, including carnivores - 14, ungulates - 6, about 340 species of birds. On the small rocky islands of
the Lesser Seas are the largest on LakeBaikal herring gull
colony, relatively large nesting ducks (scoter, hook-nosed, middle, and
red-breasted merganser). The park is found 7 species of
eagles and eagles, a special value is a unique grouping of solar nesting eagle Aquila heliaca. The park had
the status of natural monuments 52 sites. In the national park, a network
Cordon campsites, where visitors can relax (base "Taiga", Scientific
Production Base "incense" base "Young Hawk" in Ongurenskom
forestry, shelter "Semyonikha" in the village. B. Goloustnoe). Visiting information centers PNP
open in Irkutsk,.
Listvyanka, Elantsy, Big
Goloustnoe. The habitats of
rare species of plants and animals receive a large number of tourists. Rules recommended by the BaikalNational
Park to minimize possible damage to flora and
fauna of tourists and nature, are as follows: "Do not
come and see me on the cars on the pebbly capes and spit in the SmallSea.
It is here that inhabit many of
the plants - endemics and relics. Wheels cars are for them now,
the main danger, because there are many sleeper considering such braids as a
continuation of dirt roads. There should be no such duty and
tent park. The same applies to the sand
dunes in the northern coast Olkhon. You can not go on land without
roads and drive away from the road by more than 50 m. The grass cover in the
park is very fragile and slowly recovering, the trace of the car remains in
permission from the TNG prohibited the collection of biological collections (including
herbaria). In general, do not pick any
particular need plants do not engage in the unauthorized extraction of
medicinal plants, as well as firewood and other wood material for industrial
and tourist purposes. Use a cooking gas stove, brought
with him from the city.
any action with the fire, which can lead to inadvertent ignition of forest or
steppe vegetation, and when it detects a fire to try and quickly extinguished. Seeing a forest fire, you should
notify the nearest forest TNG.
finding a nest of any bird (no matter - the eagle on top of the tree, or
oatmeal on the ground), do not touch the eggs or chicks, do not place near
their tents. Do not catch a young, still
poorly flying or running birds and animals (even squirrels).
Do not kill
snakes - they have the right to life, and in the TNG violators of this law face
ChitaStateNational Park. The park, organized in 1986,
covers ChivyrkuiskyBay, HolyNosePeninsula,
the archipelago Ushkany the island with the largest rookery in Baikal seals. The park is located in the
middle of the east coast of the lake. Its area - 267.17 ha. Forest land covers 158.6 hectares;
marshes - 77,0 thousand hectares Sands - 0,4 thousand hectares.
At 40% of the
park entered the reserved mode. It prohibited any economic and
recreational activities and environmental regime remains calm, which allows you
to maintain populations of animals and birds at an optimal level. In the park includes UshkanyIslands
- one of the favorite habitat of the famous LakeBaikal seals - the seal, which is the
calling card of LakeBaikal. In the park are 5 foot tourist routes, among
which is the route to Mount Markovo, the highest mountain peak Holy Nose
Peninsula, overlooking cyclorama Ushkaniye Islands Chivyrkuy bay and sandy
beaches Barguzinsky Bay.
For the most
picturesque places in the park include OngokonskayaBayChivyrkuyBay tract Cheremshanskaya grove
overgrown with willows, the lakeArango-tai. In the cliffs of St Nose has
many caves, grottoes. Popular among the local
population and tourists are the three outputs of mineral sources: Snake Culine
swamps and Nechayev.
park has 299 species, 3 species of amphibians and 3 species of reptiles. Birds are 241 species, among them
such rare as peregrine falcon, black crane, golden eagle, black stork,
white-Pallas, white-tailed eagle, etc.
PARK TUNKA. TunkinskNational Park, established May 27, 1991 in administrative
boundaries Tunkinsky area. The park occupies TunkaValley
and adjacent mountains of the Eastern Sayan Mountains
and Hamar-Daban (maximum elevation 3172 m). Between Tunka range and
Hamar-Daban is intermountain Tunkinskaia depression 200 km and a width of 20 to 40 km. Throughout the on Tunka valley
from south to north flowing river Irkut - the left tributary of the Angara. The park - 1,183.6 hectares (150.8 hectares of
land is under agricultural land). The park is well mastered. Most Tunka valley occupied by
pastures, hayfields and pastures. The park grows more than 10 rare
and endangered plant species: Peony (Maryin root), day-lily little, buttercup
Sayan, buckthorn krushinovskaya, Rhodiola rosea, mannagetteya Hummel and
others, are more than 40 species of mammals and 62 species of birds recorded in
the Red Book Buryatia.
TunkinskaiaValley is famous for
its mineral springs. The most well known are Arshan, NilDeserts,
Pearl. These resorts are not far from
the highway A-164, and they laid a good road. Are popular carbonated radon
springs Shumak, glandular sources Khongor-Uuly.
BarguzinskyState Biosphere Reserve. Established in 1916 Barguzinsky
Reserve became the first Russian hunting reserve. Its objective was the
preservation and study of sable. Today it is the oldest nature
reserve in Russia.
In 1986 he received the status
of Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO.
reserve is located on the northeast coast of LakeBaikal,
in the central part of the western slopes of the Barguzin ridge (highest point 2,472 m). The snow cover on the balds than 2,5 meters, which is 5
times greater than on the shore
of Lake Baikal. More than half of the reserve account
balds - rocky top (1500-2400
m above sea level). About 60% it takes bald belt,
most of which is covered Alpine meadows, almost impenetrable thickets of cedar
and dwarf birch - shrubby birch and willow. In large areas are almost
lifeless rocks and stony placers. One-third occupied by mountain-taiga
forests, growing at altitudes from 600 to 1250 m. Only a little over
16% of the reserve account on the Baikal coast. The length of coast of the lake
- about 100 km.
Total length of borders - more
than 320 km.
The area of the reserve is 374,346 hectares,
including the biosphere polygon (111 146 ha) and water area of LakeBaikal
(15 000 hectares).
Area Biosphere Reserve, without
landfill - 263.2 thousand hectares.
Barguzinsky typical taiga, but with some peculiarities caused by the mountainous
terrain and proximity of LakeBaikal. Includes 41 species of mammals
and 274 species of birds, 6 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 50
species of fish and over 1200 identified species of insects.
the slopes of the Baikal Barguzinsky ridge rising to a height of 2652 meters above
sea-level. They are cut by a dense network
of valleys, among which the canyon four major rivers: Sosnovka Tarkulika, Big
and Kabanov, originating at the tops Barguzin range. Total in the reserve 17 rivers
flowing into LakeBaikal. Their watersheds are located
entirely in the protected area.
valleys Ezovki, Large, and gave Talamusha are hot springs with water temperatures in some
of them above 70 ° C.
The reserve has
874 species of plants. Many years of protection
Barguzin preserve a favorable impact on the number of animals. I bear it reaches in good years
250 individuals in protein - from 5000 to 10 000 animals.
allowed two routes: from the village. Davshe and the cordon in the Bay
Sosnovka the upper river. Shumilikha (14 km).
BAIKAL-LenaPark. Baikal-Lena State Reserve, was
organized in 1986, is located on the northwestern shore of LakeBaikal
in Kachugskogo and Olkhon Irkutsk region. Its area is 659,919 hectares. This is the largest conservation
area on LakeBaikal
(14-th place in Russia).
The reserve stretches from south
to north along the west coast of the lake about 120 km at an average width
of 65 km.
The perimeter of its borders is
about 520 km,
112 of which were on the shore of the lake. The reserve includes the coast
of Lake Baikal region. Heyrema to CapeElokhin, impenetrable plot of the BaikalRange
and headwaters of the great Siberian river Lena
and its tributaries. Lena th length (4400 km) took first place
and 10th in the world. At CapeElokhin
the border of the Irkutsk Region Republic of Buryatia.
bulk of the reserve before the taiga forests of various types. On the shore of LakeBaikal
the fragments of ancient relic steppes. Flora of higher plants, the
reserve includes 920 species, of which 36 species - endemic to Siberia, 10 of them are included in the federal Red Book.
Widely represented as mosses
(230 species), lichens (248 species) and mushrooms (about 100 species).