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Flora and fauna of Lake Baikal

Siberian cedar. Cedar forests are characteristic for the region of the Eastern Sayan headwaters. Lena, the north-western slopes of the mountains Pribaikalsky. Height cedar 35-40 m, trunk diameter - up to 1,8 m, live up to 500 years. Known primarily due to pine nuts, abundant harvest which happens every 5-6 years. Local people call it breadfruit Siberia, and pine forests - the woods. Cedar forests anciently attributed healing power. Even the air in the cedar wood healers, since saturated volatile volatile production and essential oils. Cedar wood, impregnated with resins, has bactericidal properties and affects the pathogens, so the hut, built of cedar, surprisingly easy to breathe, and sleep is strong and healthy. In the pine nuts contains all the necessary human vitamin complex. Click nuts - a favorite occupation in villages on winter evenings to pass the time. Cedar cones ripen in September. The first nut because of its taste is called milk. The most useful ripe nuts. Cones, ripen, fall from the trees, and they can collect on the ground. This bump is called Siberian padankoy. With a cedar can get up to 200 cones.

In his book "The Ringing Cedars of Russia" Maigret tells a story of the Siberian taiga kudesnitsy Anastasia on what conditions must be followed when harvesting and processing of pine nuts to oil extracted from them have all the healing properties and qualities of cedar: "It is impossible to collect cones to beat cedar clappers or logs, as do collectors today. Healing Oil falls sharply on it. The cones should only be used, which itself gives cedar. They are when the wind fell, and the voice they can knock down ... From the land of their people should gather not evil. And it's good when raises lump child's hand. In general, and all the subsequent need to do with good thoughts and light.

Obtained after peeling cone nut should be used to squeeze oil no later than three months, then the quality will deteriorate rapidly. If you can not refuse, so the nucleus in contact with the metal. In general, the metal oil should not come into contact. It cures all diseases are diagnosed do not need. Drink can be a food product, adding to salads. And you can spoon a day. Best at sunrise. Can the day. In the light of day, not at night. " Before the revolution, when the sunflower oil was in short supply, were made of walnut oil. The nutritive qualities of cedar oil than sunflower oil and butter. The oil from cedar nuts in the XIX century one could buy at any Siberian Fair. It is produced mainly in the home and artisanal. Nuts dried, sorted, cleaned from the shell. Very often clearance was carried out manually. Kernels are milled into wooden mortar until the pasty mass, which shifted into a copper vat, obmurovanny brick. Above tub drain was for oil, and placed inside the 4-paddle stirrer, powered by the same hand. When the mass in the tank warmed to it by adding hot water and stirred mixer. Oil rose up, and through the gutter runoff flowed into a special dish. Currently, the production of cedar oil, milk, cream and halva undeservedly forgotten. Pine nut is sold in cones (with milk) and purified (red-hot). According to studies in the nucleus it contains up to 64% fat and 19% of nitrogenous substances. Carbohydrates make up 15%. Nutritional and medicinal properties of nuts is largely due to the qualitative composition of fats, protein and other substances. Protein pine nuts are characterized by a high content of amino acids, among them the predominant arginine - up to 20%. This amino acid is extremely important for the development of a growing organism, so the pine nuts should definitely include in the diet of children, adolescents, pregnant women. Pine nut - a rich source of iodine, which is very important for the population of Siberia and the North. The researchers found that 100 g of kernels is enough to meet the daily need for adult in amino acids and such important and scarce micronutrients such as copper, cobalt, manganese, and zinc.

Cedar wood has not strong, but steady odor, continuing for decades and frightening mole. Built of cedar house is considered useful for the health of people living in it. Cedar wood has a very high technical qualities (strength, resistance to decay), and antibacterial properties. Larch. On the coast of the Small Sea grows mainly larch forest. Larch height reaches 25-30 m. The bright-yellow crown fire is particularly spectacular against the blue of the lake in autumn. Larch - the only genus of coniferous trees, whose needles are shed in winter, as the leaves. Larchwood, do not decompose even in water, is its property used for construction of buildings in Venice, which for over 1400 years are on the larch piles and do not lose their strength. It explains the specific composition of such properties of the resin, through which over time larch only gaining strength and density. The nature of the resin, which penetrates the wood, it is unaffected by insects - Cossidae, and used without any chemical treatment in cases where other species are exposed to rot. Larchwood is very beautiful - has a reddish tint. Annual rings are clearly marked and visible for all cross sections and attach prostrogannym surfaces beautiful structure similar to the red oak. Cost of products from larch higher than pine, but they are much more durable.

Thyme - BOGORODSKII GRASS (Thymus serpyllum). Thyme grows on rocky slopes, open sandy places, steppe meadows. Distributed in the Baikal region, and in Transbaikalia. This is a low shrub, consisting of a branched stem with many leaves - narrow and curled at the sides, with small white and pink flowers. It grows in dry poor soil, easily propagated beams bloom from June to August. Pink Spot color is hard not to notice the sand hills. Grass Thyme contains about 1% of essential oils, and if a twig bruise in his hands, formed a stable characteristic odor. For therapeutic purposes, collect flowering apical part of the plant. Infusions and decoctions of thyme is widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases, including to prolong life, as a means of fortifying the immune system, nervous disorders and insomnia. Pinch of dried thyme thrown into the fire the shaman during the ritual of purification.

The infusion is prepared typically from one or two tablespoons of dried herb per 100 g of boiling water. Herb brewed in a glass bowl and leave it infuse for 4-5 hours.

Ramsons (Allium vikto-r »ahs). It grows in nearly all parts of Lake Baikal, in places forming large thickets. This is a herbaceous plant of the onion family with a height of 30-70 cm, with wide, 2-8 cm, petiolate, flat leaves. For sale in the markets in May - June when the stems and leaves of wild garlic the most soft and juicy. Young shoots are edible fresh, salted and pickled form, added to soups, hash, meat dumplings, minced "used in salads. Leaves contain useful elements such as vitamin C (up to 73%), carotene (14%), proteins (2,4%), carbohydrates (6,5%), saponins, essential oils, organic acids, a large number phytoncids. To store ramson finely shredded and salted, like cabbage. Salad dressed with sour cream or mayonnaise. It has the smell of garlic and appetite.

SAGANDAYLYA - ADAMS Rhododendron (Rhododendron adamsii Rehder). It grows in high altitudes on rocky slopes in the Eastern Sayan, the Hamar-Daban, Barguzin range. Blossoms in the second half of June and July. Harvested leafy apical parts of the plant since the beginning of flowering and before the formation of fruit. Dried in the shade. The local Buryat population widely used sagandaylyu as a tonic and stimulant. Stimulates the kidneys, heart, brain. Increases potency, relieves fatigue and hangover. Otherwise known as the Tibetan name "white wing", the grass, extending the life. Nutritional supplement gives the tea a specific and surprisingly pleasant and strong aroma. For a tonic tea for 1 cup of brew with added no more than 3-5 leaves and stems. It is not recommended to prevent overdose. Buy sagandaylyu be in Irkutsk pharmacies. Grass is sold by the local population from sources in the village. Arshan.

Cranberry (Rhodococcum vitis-idaea). Bilberry are common in the forests of Siberia, sometimes they form a continuous carpet. Berries mature in August - September. With a good harvest, berry-collecting scoop for 2-3 hours a full bucket. For long-term storage of fresh berries with sugar to sleep or flood water. It is especially good frozen berries to hot game or tea after the bath. Lingonberry is used in the fresh and crystallized form, sauerkraut (cabbage), soaked with apple and pickled. From the berries can be cooked jam, jams, syrups, kvass. It contains sugar (6-8%), organic acids (2%), tannins, a small amount of vitamin F and C, carotene. Lingonberry - well-known home remedy. In the form of water or juice it is used as a febrifuge. Tea with lingonberry jam - good diaphoretic.

ORGANIC WORLD

The fauna of Lake Baikal are almost all types of animals living in fresh water. There is no other lake, biological diversity which would be so great and unique. Species diversity of Lake Baikal has no equal among the ancients and the great lakes in the world. Science describes annually more than 20 new species of invertebrate animals of the lake. In Baikal there are more than 3,5 thousand species and varieties of animals and plants, nearly 2 / 3 of them are endemic, and nowhere in the world will no longer occur. Therefore, Lake Baikal can be considered one of the geographical centers of origin of biological species.

In Baikal there are currently 59 species of fish among the fishing is only 15. The most famous among them salmon, grayling, whitefish. In a small number of Baikal sturgeon found in small quantities - trout, burbot, davatchan, goldilocks, soroga, perch, ide. The biggest fish of Lake Baikal is the Baikal sturgeon, a length of 1,5-1,8 m, and weight - 100-130 kg and more. Second in size and weight of fish is the trout, its length - up to 1 m and weight - up to 40-50 kg. The smallest fish of Lake Baikal - shirokolobka Gurvich. Adults of this fish weigh only 2-3, the minnow, or as they are called by the locals, Molkov - one of the many fish the bays of Lake Baikal. But the small size of this fish is the reason that it is still no fish.

Omul (Coregonus autumnalis migratorius Georgy). For the first time praised the fish wealth of Baikal archpriest Habakkuk. Returning in the summer of 1662 from dahurica links, he wrote: "A fish Zelo thickly in the lake: sturgeon and trout fatty much - do not fry in the pan: grease everything will be. Freshwater fish is in it ~ sturgeon and trout, sturgeon and omul, whitefish and many other genera. Special glory won Baikal omul. Omul - most numerous game-fish the lake. It also occurs in the basin of the Arctic Ocean, in the lake Baikal subspecies inhabits. Omul - a fish of the genus whitefish. In four of the population live in Lake Baikal: Selenga, Chivyrkui, Severobaykalsk and Embassies. The most numerous of them - Selenga. The biomass of all age groups, salmon, according to 2006 are estimated at 21.2 thousand tons The largest size of fish recorded at the Selenga population: length - 50 cm, weight - 5 kg. Lives omul 24-25 years. Especially prized because of its unique delicate taste salty salmon.

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